The Nobel prize in medicine was awarded for induced stem cells

The Nobel prize in medicine was awarded for induced stem cellsIn Stockholm announced the winners of the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine. This year the award was given to John Gardon (Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka (Shinya Yamanaka) for "opening the possibility of reprogramming adult cells into pluripotent".In other words, for obtaining induced pluripotent stem cells. The award ceremony is scheduled for 10 December 2012.Sir John Gardon - British biologist known for his work on transplantation of cell nuclei. He was born in 1933, and in 1960 graduated from the University of Oxford. A PhD scientist received at the California Institute of technology. In 1962 the Gardon conducted an experiment in which he replaced the nucleus of a frog egg cell into the nucleus taken from the cell of the intestine. Subsequently, from such eggs develop normal tadpoles. In the experiment were obtained evidence that in the genome of highly specialized cells stores information sufficient to work all the body's cells, and their specialization can be reversible.Shinya Yamanaka was born in Osaka in 1966. He graduated from Kobe University, and a doctoral thesis defended at the University of Osaka in 1992. Studies that Yamanaka was awarded the Nobel prize, held 40 years after the experiments Gardone. In 2006, a Japanese scientist and colleagues published a paper in which he showed that activating all four genes in connective tissue cells, they can be turned into stem cells. Subsequently, these cells can develop in any cell in the body.In 2011, the prize in medicine was awarded for studies of the mechanism of innate immunity. The winners at that time were three scientists: Bruce Beutler (Bruce A. Beutler, Jules Hoffmann (Jules A. Hoffmann and Ralph Steinman (Ralph M. Steinman). The last of the winners died three days before the announcement of the decision of the Nobel Committee. Source: Nobel prize in medicine was awarded for induced stem cells.

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